Istanbul is the most populous city in Turkey that straddles Europe and Asia across the Bosphorus Strait. Its formerly known as as Byzantium and Constantinople. The city held the strategic position between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. The population of Istanbul in 2020 is estimated to be 15,682,267 (15.6 million), and the urban area is 2,576 sq.km (994.93 sq mi). In 1923, after the Turkish War of Independence, Ankara was chosen as the new Turkish capital, and the city's name was changed to Istanbul. The first known name of the city is Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion), the name given to it at its foundation by Megarean colonists around 660 BCE. After Constantine the Great made it the new eastern capital of the Roman Empire in 330 CE, the city became widely known as Constantinople. The Ottaman empire renamed Constantinople to Istanbul, was referred as "Islam bol", "Islambul" in the late 17th century. In modern Turkish, the name is written as İstanbul, with a dotted İ. Over 12 million foreign visitors came to Istanbul. The Republic of Turkey was born in the year 1923, Istanbul has continued to expand, today its population is over 15 million and growing constantly and the city continues to be the commercial and cultural center of Turkey.Istanbul city UN Urban Agglomeration Population Prospects - 1950 to 1935
The city which was organised by Constantine as 14 districts in imitation of Rome, is now divided into 27 district municipalities, each of which has a mayor and a district council whose members are elected every five years. District municipalities manage their own budgets and are responsible for local tasks that include handling waste removal and issuing construction permits. Together with 12 district municipalities located outside the city, they make up a metropolitan municipality headed by a mayor of its own and a council composed of the district municipalities’ mayors and a portion of their council members. Below is the list of districts of Istanbul in Turkey as of 31 December 2019. 8 new districts were added before the 2009 local elections. Out of these 25 districts fall in Europe and 14 districts in Asia.
Istanbul Size and Population
According to turkstat in 2017, Average Life expectancy of Istanbul citizen 78.7 years in 2017, out of these 75.8 years for Male and 81.5 years for Female. Fertility rate of women is 2.1, Crude birth rate is 16.4%, 1318 births per 1000 and median age is 31.7 years. 23.6% are below 14 years of age, 67.9% are between 15 to 64 years and 8.5% are above 65 years. Istanbul population in 2017 is 15 029 231, and expected to reach population 16 310 652 in 2023 with an average population growth of 13.6%.
İstanbul migration population in 2019 is, in-migration was 498,676 and out-migration is 378,305 and net-migration is 120,371, Rate of net migration is 7.8%.
Religion wise Istanbul Population
Secularism is one of the fundamental principles of the Turkish national education system. In Turkey, various communities belonging to different religious beliefs. There are Christian denominations (Greek Orthodox, Armenian Apostolic, Syriac, Chaldean), Judaism, Yezidism and others. Majority of the Turkish population are Muslims which is 99%. However, Turkish citizen is denominated as "Turk" or "Turks", regardless of religious or ethnic origin. The non-muslim rights of the minorities are secured with the Lausanne Peace Treaty (Lozan Barış Antlaşması) and they are allowed as per National law for establishing their own temples. The religious services of these minorities are regulated by their community.
Languages spoken in Istanbul
Turkish is the official language of Turkey and English is widely spoken in Istanbul. Foreign language courses in all schools provide education in Turkish and Turkish culture-related courses in Turkish. The minority schools established by Greek, Armenian and Jewish minorities, As per the Lausanne Peace Treaty (Lozan Antlaşması), the minority schools and foreign institutions offer eduction in their native language and the schools are authorised to educate in their own language. Also the private foreign schools established by the French, German, Italian, Australian and Americans admit Turkish nationals for enrolment.
Istanbul is Turkey's most developed and largest city, , history of human habitation traces goes to some 400,000 years. According to thoughtco references, Byzantium became a part of the Roman Empire in the early years of 300 and the population is estimated to be around 300,000. During this time, the Roman emperor, Constantine the Great, undertook the rebuilding of the entire city. His goal was to make it stand out and give the city monuments similar to those found in Rome. In 330, Constantine declared the city as the capital of the entire Roman Empire and renamed it Constantinople. The purple years of Istanbul have started when Emperor Constantine declared the city the capital of his empire, royal purple is the colour of the Byzantine imperial family. In the year 532 during the reign of Justinian I, city was rebuilt after riots destroyed the city, outstanding structures such as Hagia Sophia stand as one of the greatest monuments of Byzantines, during this time the population is around 400,000. Between 7th and 8th century, the city was sieged by Arabs and during 9th and 10 it was ruled by Barbarians and Fourth Crusade between 1204 to 1261. from 7th to 12th century, Istanbul was suffered with destruction of monuments, wealth and art, during this time population of Istanbul is decreased between 80,000 to 200,00 due to constant threats and sieges. By 1453, it was conquered by the Ottomans, the city was the capital of the Byzantine Empire. During the reign of the Byzantines, Istanbul was beautified with a number of great monuments, which made the most magnificent city in the world. The identity of Istanbul that started with the Byzantines was further shaped during the of the Ottoman Empire. IN 1453, Sultan Mehmet the Conquered Istanbul and made capital of Ottoman Empire and continued for over the next 450 years the city was made attractive with beautiful Ottoman monuments. The population of Istanbul started gaining again after 700 years. The population is increased to 200,000 in 1500 to 660,00 in 1600. During Sultan Bayezid II the building works was further developed with the finest works built by the Chief Architect Mimar Sinan, He was famous architect who put his signature on the masterpieces of Istanbul silhouette. The Ottomans respected all religions and allowed many of worship places for the Christian and Jewish communities. The Istanbul mosques, churches and other worship places stood stand side by side as the physical evidence of Istanbul and this was the symbol of Ottoman empire's tolerance and fraternity of religions. The Hagia Sophia cathedral was constructed in 537 AD and was the greatest architectural of the Byzantine Empire, and for almost 900 years it was maintained the seat of the Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople. In 1453, when the Ottomans took over Constantinople, the Hagia Sophia was turned into a mosque. Currently it is a museum. In the first quarter of the 20th century there were various disruptions were visible after marking the death of the Ottoman Empire and the birth of modern Turkey.