Bangkok is the largest city and capital of Thailand. Bangkok is located on the delta of the Chao Phraya River, about 40 km from the Gulf of Thailand. Bangkok population in 2021 is estimated to be 10.7 million, and covers area of 1,568 sq km. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep, official name meaning the City of Gods, the Great City. Most of the city population are ethnic Thais. Bangkok is a heaven for tourists, walled Buddhist temples and monasteries called wats, serve as focal points for cultural and commercial. Modern Bangkok has undergone explosive growth since from 1960, expansion has sprawled outward well beyond the administrative boundaries into the surrounding agricultural areas. Most of the border districts has become residential and industrial where inner city area are accommodated with institutional and commercial activities.
Bangkok was formerly divided into two municipalities, The Krung Thep on the east bank and Thon Buri on the west, which is connected by several bridges. In 1971 the two regions were united as a city and province administered with a single municipal government. In 1972 the city and the two surrounding provinces were merged into one province, called Krung Thep Maha Nakhon currently called Bangkok Metropolis. Bangkok means village of wild plums, got its name from the two words, 'bang' means village and 'makok' means wild plums.
|Bangkok City(2021)||Bangkok Metropolitan(2020)|
|Population||10.7 million||16.2 million|
|Area||1,568.737 sq km||7,761 sq km|
|Rank||1 (Thailand)||12 (World)|
Bangkok has fifty districts under the authority of the BMA. Chao Phraya, eastern side and Thonburi, western side are the two sides of Bangkok. Thirty-five of these districts lie to the east of the Chao Phraya, while fifteen are Thonburi side of the city. According to 2010 census The fifty district populations are as below:
|Bang Kho Laem||บางคอแหลม||94,956|
|Bang Khun Thian||บางขุนเทียน||165,491|
|Khan Na Yao||คันนายาว||88,678|
|Khlong Sam Wa||คลองสามวา||169,489|
|Pom Prap Sattru Phai||ป้อมปราบศัตรูพ่าย||51,006|
Bangkok Population Ranking & Density
The Bangkok area is 1,568.7 square kilometers. It has common boundary with Nonthaburi and Pathum Thani in the North, Chachonengsao in the East, Samut Prakan in the South, Nakhon Pathom and Samut Sakhon in the West, most area is a flat land. The climate is moderate throughout the year. In the year 2010, the Bangkok had 50 districts (Amphoe) and 169 sub-districts (Tambon).
Bangkok average population is 5,294.3 per sq km, Pop prop is 22,243 people per sq.km., Dindaeng is 18,843 people per sq. km., Thon Buri is 18,091 people per sq.km. Nong Chokn is 710 people per sq. km. Considering the number of population, Bangkapi is the most populous of about 355,591 persons (4.3%), followed by Jatujak which is 332,877 persons (4.0%), Lat krabang has 299,775 persons (3.6%) and Samphanthawong is the least populous, of about 20,765 persons (0.3%). Number of population in the Bangkok on the census date was 8.3 million, 4.3 million were females (51.4%) and 4.0 million were males (48.6%) with the sex ratio of 94.4 (males to 100 females).
Most population of Bangkok are Thai are 91.4%, Burmese are 2.6%, and the rest 6% are Chinese, Cambodian and Japanese. 92.5% are Buddhist, 4.6% are Islamic and 2.6% are Christian and other religions. 12.8% of population are 0 to 14 years(1.1 million), 77.6% are between 15 to 59 years(6.4 million) and 9.6% are 60 years and over(0.8 million).
There were 2,881,752 households in Bangkok, about 2,869,224 private households, 12,528 collective households (Such as institutional household, worker’s household). The average size of private households was 2.7 persons per household. Considering district differentials, Bangkholam and Talingchan had the biggest average size of private household, of about 3.6 persons, followed by Chomthong 3.4 persons. Bangrak had the smallest average size of private households (2.1 persons per household). In private households, There were higher percentage of male headed households than female headed households (63.4 percent compared to 36.6 percent)
Regarding the ability to read and write both Thai and other languages, it was found that more than 90 percent of population aged 15 years and over, in the Bangkok can read and write Thai. Moreover, the Thai literacy rate was not significantly different in terms of sex. For literacy rate of other languages, such as, English, Myanmar and Japanese, comparing between sex, it showed that female population higher literacy rate in other languages than male (33.8 and 31.9 percent, respectively).
Population growth of Bangkok
According to last census of 2010, Number of population in the Bangkok on the census date was 8.3 million, 4.3 million were females (51.4%) and 4.0 million were males (48.6%) with the sex ratio of 94.4 (males to 100 females). Considering the number of population, Bangkapi is the most populous of about 355,591 persons (4.3%), followed by Jatujak which is 332,877 persons (4.0%), Lat krabang has 299,775 persons (3.6%) and Samphanthawong is the least populous, of about 20,765 persons (0.3%).
Bangkok's Population until 1909, There are no reliable population statistics for Bangkok (or Siam as a whole) prior to the 1920s. Though there are some relevant data in the National Archives, for example labour registrations and tax collection records, all these are scant and difficult to interpret and compare. Estimates of Bangkok's population between the mid-19th century and 1909 also vary widely.
Table below is the estimates of Bangkok's Population during 1856-1909
Sources (quoted by Sternstein) Das Konigreich Siam'Mittheilugen Von Peyerman, The Stateman's Yearbook, London, 1883, Whitaker's Almanac, 1875, Caddy, F., To Siam and Malaya, 1889, Whitaker's Almanac, 1891, The Stateman's Yearbook, 1895, p. 935,Macgregor,]., Through the Buffer State, 1896, Greater Bangkok plan, Carter, A. C. ed., The Kingdom o/Thailand, 1904.
In Bangkok before 1892, no provincial administration was established. Many settlements in Bangkok prior were on water. Numerous floating houses or shops were located along the banks and waterways of the Chaophraya river and the various canals.
The settlements in Bangkok prior to 1880 as per Askew, The first land-based settlements clustered along waterways near the wat (temple) which served religious, educational and recreational functions. These "Bang' which may be translated as "water hamlet" settlements formed a loose network.
While the great mass of the urban population continued to live on the water until at least the close of Rama IV's reign, the movement onto land was pioneered by the nobility building palaces and the establishment of temples. After 1855 European traders settled along the southern reaches of the river and were soon occupying houses and shops on land. More important to the ecology of the emerging land-based city than the jarang (westerners), however, were various distinctive ethnic and occupational communities. The ethnic mosaic which comprised settlement groups such as the Chinese at Sampeng, the Indians of Pahurat, the Vietnamese of Wat Yuan, the Khmer of Samsen spread in a loose pattern of "Yarn" (districts) around the city wall. The clustering ofBang and Ban (villages) was the earliest pattern of settlement.
The wide range of population estimates was affected by fluctuations in the number of Chinese migrants. The Chinese constituted a substantial component of the entire Bangkok's population prior to 1950, and Chinese migrants, mainly males, would typically live in Thailand for a few years and return home after they accumulated enough wealth. It was therefore difficult to assess their numbers accurately.
Bangkok grew slowly through the 18th and early 19th centuries, despite being the capital since 1782. In 1822, the population was estimated at 50,000 or less. The population began to grow as the city became more modern in the 19th century, with faster growth in the 1930s after the discovery of antibiotics improved healthcare.
Although founded as late as 1782, According to Kyoto-Seas, Bangkok was soon established as the country's leading urban centre. Of course, the emergence of a clearly identifiable geographically delineated, country of Siam was a slow progress. But even though we cannot strictly speak of a nation in early 19th century Siam, it is clear that by around 1820, Bangkok surpassed other Thai-speaking centres in terms of size and commercial significance.
According to Terwiel and Sternstein, in 1827 other urban centres were much smaller than Bangkok. Ayutthaya contained 41,350 people (26,200 according to a 1849 later estimate), Chantaburi 36,900, Saraburi 14,320 and Phitsanulok 5,000. Bangkok was a royal city, main religious centre, and port of international trade. As such it drew goods and people from the countryside and also brought an influx of migrants (mostly Chinese).
The major changes came only from about the 1880s and 1890s, with a marked acceleration of population growth (much of it caused by Chinese migration) and an expansion of permanent land dwelling. As long as the area of Bangkok was confined, and the population is small, city regulation could be maintained within the traditional Siamese social structures. Thailand was an absolute monarchy until 1932, The linking Bangkok administrative structure with royal interests produced both a physical and economic stamp on Bangkok which has had an enduring effect on Bangkok's development.
The first population census in 1909 to 1910 does not include a figure for metropolitan Bangkok, but estimates show that the population is between 400,000 to 500,000. The 1919 census counted 478,994 in Bangkok-Thonburi of which 337,236 lived in Changwat Pranakorn (province) and 141,758 in Changwat Thonburi. The 1919 Bangkok distribution by ethnic groups was: 225,729 are Thai's, 116,431 are Chinese, 14,193 are Indians, 1,447 are Europeans and U. S. A.,716 are Vietnamese, 523 are Cambodian, 511 are Burmese, 232 are Japanese.
The distribution of Population in Bangkok in 1913
|Area||Population in 1913|
|Unidentified floating houses||32,212|
|Number of Monks||7,012|
|Grand Total Number||402,915|
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