London is the populous city and capital of United Kingdom, located on the Thames river of the south-east of England. London city is one of the ancient city and most powerful cities of the ancient world. London population in 2023 is 8.87 Million and ranks 37th populous urban agglomeration of the world and total area is 1,572 sq.km. Londinium was created by Romans around 1 century. London Universities are one of the oldest educational systems of the world. London is the country's economic, transportation, and cultural centre and it was one of the largest financial center of the world. According to 2011 Census, Londoners born in UK are 5.18 million where as born outside are 3 million, Non-UK countries of Birth are India with 252K, Poland with 158K, Ireland with 130K, Nigeria with 115K and Pakistan with 112K births outside UK. Total of 3.27 million households in London, out of these 48% are owned, 24% are Social Rented and 26% are Private Rented. 44% of total population are Singles, 40% are Married, below one percent are Civil partnership, 3% are Separated, 44% are Divorced and 5% are Widowed. 51% of the population has no-dependent children, 23% has one dependent child, 17% has two dependent children and 9% has three-plus dependent children. 30 percent of adults has a educational degree, 18 percent of adults has foreign degree and 18 percent of adults has no educational degree. 4.38 million of population are economically active and 1.73 million are in-active, 12% are self employed and 12% are full-time students. Population in 1991 is 6,679,699, in 2001 is 7,172,091 and in 2011 is 8,173,941. Population census for the last census in 2011 are based on births, deaths and projected migration patterns. The population of London begin to rise again and between 1991 and 2011, increased in size by 1.7 million people. The Greater London Authority (GLA) projection places London population in 2015 is 8.63 million, the largest it has ever been. Over the next thirty years the projected growth is around five percent per decade with the population reaching 10.5 million in 2039. The present-day City of London covers an area of 2.9 sq. km (1.1 sq. miles). Greater London forms the core of a larger metropolitan area with a larger area and population that extends as far as 70km (45 mi) from the centre of the city and the total GLA area is 1,572 sq. km (607 sq. mi).
Greater London Authority, metropolitan county of southeastern England that is also known as London. The administrative structure of Greater London includes 33 separate boroughs, 14 of which constitute Inner London and the others Outer London.
The table below provides the population for each London borough of inner and outer, and Greater London between the years 1939 and 2039. The overall picture for London between 1939 and 2015 is one of decline and recovery time, however this is not the picture across all boroughs. In fact at the sub-regional level the population is declined for inner London boroughs and increased for outer London. The total number of residents of inner London has decreased by 1 million people over the period 1939 to 2015, from 4.44 million in 1939 to 3.44 million people. In inner London population density is decreased from 13.9 persons per sq.km to 10.7 per sq.km, while in outer London the change was from per 3.3 sq.km to per 4.1 sq.km.
The boroughs with the largest percentage increase between 1939 and 2015 were all located in outer London, the overall population of outer London increased by 24 percent over this time from 4.18 to 5.19 million people. The three boroughs with the highest percentage rises were all located on the Greater London border are Hillingdon, Havering and Bromley. This growth rate seen was in the majority of outer London boroughs and the result of the significant housing development during the middle of the twentieth century. With a decreasing density of occupation in inner London, This made urbanisation of the outer London boroughs. Boroughs with the highest percentage decrease in numbers were Islington, Westminster, Tower Hamlets and Southwark, all with a decline in numbers of between 32 to 36 per cent.
|Borough||GLA Population estimate 2017||Households||Area in Sq.Km||Density|
|City of London||8,800||5,326||2.9||30.3|
|Hammersmith and Fulham||185,300||83,552||16.4||113.0|
|Kensington and Chelsea||159,000||80,200||12.1||131.1|
|Barking and Dagenham||209,000||78,188||36.1||57.9|
|Kingston upon Thames||175,400||69,849||37.3||47.1|
|Richmond upon Thames||197,300||85,108||57.4||34.4|
London Population Ranking & Density
London population in 2022 is 8.83 million, According to London demography reference, London population in 2021 is 8.797 million, The first UK Census was taken in 1801, recorded London population at just over 1 million people. It grew at a rate of around 20 percent per decade through the 19th century reaching the population of 6.5 million in 1901. Over the first three decades of the twentieth century the population continued to grow but slower rate up to a peak in 1939 of 8.61 million. The population of London began to decline due to the Second World War impact and later due to changes to social structures and increasing suburbanisation. By 1988 the population of London was 6.7 million, a decrease of around 22 per cent since 1939.
London Language demographics
English is the official language of London, Bengali is the second most spoken language in London after English.
According to 2011 census, The ten top languages of non-English speakers are 48,585 people speak Polish, 71,609 speak Bengali, 43,868 speak Gujarati, 13,013 speak French, 18,127 speak Urdu, 9,897 speak Portuguese, Spanish, 45,117 speak Turkish, 11,971 speak Arabic, 10,513 speak Tamil, 22,108 speak Punjabi, while most people speak English as well as their native language.
Punjabi, Urdu, Bengali and Gujarati are the four languages of the large Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi populations in the UK. In total they are over 2 million speakers. Some of these speakers are second or third generation immigrants who are bilingual in English and one of these languages.
It is estimated that there are around 800,000 native Polish-speakers in the UK, 48,585 speak Polish language in London.
London Population by Race
|White & Black Caribbean||1,20,100||143,800|
|White & Black African||65,900||88,200|
|White & Asian||1,02,200||135,100|
|Other Ethnic Group||175,800||229,100|
The Vikings established Danelaw over much of eastern and northern England, its boundary stretched roughly from London to Chester. Some major centres such as Chester, London, Gloucester, Lincoln, Winchester and York has longer histories, being Roman foundations of the first century AD. According to London Civic Theatre: City Drama and Pageantry from Roman Times to 1558, London was inhabited since from 10,000 BC. Romans invaded London during the period of 43 BC, Settlement named Londinium. Roman London had a population of approximately around 60,000. From around 500, an Anglo-Saxon settlement known as Lundenwic developed slightly west of the old Roman city. London had been the largest and wealthiest town in England from the tenth century. By the 11th century, London was beyond all comparison the largest town in England, With reference to Medieval Towns: The Archaeology of British Towns in Their European Setting, Between 1100 and 1300 there is tremendous growth in England. London is the major international centre in the thirteenth century, increasing its population, wealth and political influence. London entertainment involving dancing and music. In 1340, London population may have been between 80,000 to 100,000. Comparison with the large cities of greater than 50,000 of European cities such as Milan, Venice, Naples, Florence and Palermo. Ghent has 56000, Cologne has 40,000 and Bruges has 35000 in the year 1340. Paris had a population estimated between 80,000 and 200,00 during the period. The Black Death of 1348 was caused due to the the pandemic of plaque and country already weekend by political problems and natural disasters. Crop failures and cattle disease in 1337 and was with Scotland, and wide spread famines between 1312 to 1325. London show that there was a decline in the fourteen century and many towns in England suffered nearly 50 percent loss of population from the plague, which would mean nearly 50,000 loss in London. During the late fourteen and fifteenth centuries cloth replaced wool as England's main export. By 1500 the trade was the transformation of raw materials into finished goods. The England merchants had captured foreign markets. There was a general slump and economic depression in the middle of the fifteenth century which adversely affected London and whole England.
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