Elephants are the largest existing land animals. Elephants are the largest land mammals on earth and have massive bodies, large ears, and long trunks. Total elephant population in the world is estimated to be 497,000 by 2022 living in the wild. They belongs to belonging to the family Elephantidae, The African bush elephant also called savanna elephant, the African forest elephant, and the Asian elephant are the three types of species living on earth. The African savanna elephant or bush elephant is the largest elephant species, while the Asian forest elephant and the African forest elephant are of a smaller size comparable to savanna type.
Both male and female African elephants grow tusks and each individual can either be left- or right-tusked, and the one they use more is usually smaller because of wear and tear. The elephants extended teeth can be used to protect the elephant's trunk, move objects, lift and gather food, and strip bark from trees. The trunk is used for breathing, bringing food and water to the mouth. Elephants sometimes use tusks to dig holes to find water underground if they are unable to find water and draught. Only some male Asian elephants have tusks, while both male and female African elephants grow tusks.
Elephants can live up to 70 years in the wild forest zone, due to the human conflict wild zone is on the decrease, African elephants currently live average of 56 years in the wild, while Asian elephants live about 41.7 years. Elephants are the largest animals in size. Male African bush elephants are larger size from 10 feet to 11 feet tall with weight of 5.5 to 7.7 tons, and Female African bush elephants from 8 feet to 9 feet tall with weight 3 to 4 tons. Male Asian elephants are usually 8.7 feet to 9.6 feet tall with weight 4 to 5 tons, whereas female Asian elephants are 7.6 feet to 8.3 feet tall with weight 2.5 to 3.5 tons. Male African forest elephants are usually 6.10 feet 7.7 feet tall and weight being 1.9 to 2.5 tons, Female African forest elephants are 5.4 feet to 6.3 feet tall and weight being 1.2 to 1.9 tons.
In 1930, According to Worldwildlife, There are as many as 10 million wild elephants roamed huge swaths of the African continent, as on 2016 it is estimated to be 415,000 in the Africa region. The key causes of declining of elephant population is human conflict with forest zone, elephant poaching for tusks and climate change. In Central Africa elephant population is estimated to be 24,119, Eastern Africa it is 86,373, Souther Africa being largest population of 293,447 and West Africa of 11,489. Botswana is home to the world's largest elephant population with over 130,000 elephants.
Asian elephant population has declined by an estimated 50 percent over the past 75 years, and Elephant population in Asia is estimated be 52,000 left in the wild. More than 60% of the elephant population exists in India alone. Only four other countries Malaysia, Thailand, Myanmar and Sri Lanka to have more than 2,000 wild elephants. The last census for elephant population in India was carried out in 2017 and concluded that there are more than 27,000 elephants. According to IUCN, Asian elephant populations can be found in these places: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam. Most of the elephant population is threatened due to loss of habitats & poaching for ivory, and the entire elephant population has gone extinct in Pakistan in the last decade.
The list of estimated population of elephants by country are:
India: The elephant is considered the Natural Heritage Animal of India. The Indian elephant is the subspecies of Asian elephant. As on 2017, India has the highest elephant population in Asia, The population according to Indian States are, Karnataka State with 6,049 elephants, followed by Assam with 5,719, Kerala with 5,706, Tamil Nadu with 2,706, Odisha with 1,976, Uttarakhand with 1,839 and Arunachal Pradesh with 1,614. West Bengal, Jharkhand, Nagaland, Chhattisgarh, Uttar pradesh and Tripura has the range between 100 to 700 elephants. Other States have below 100.
Kenya: In 1989 there were just 16,000 elephants in Kenya, by 2019 that number had increased to 34,900, Elephants Are Booming in Kenya. Elephant population in Kenya in 2022 is estimated to be 35,500. About 170 elephant calves have been born in 2020. The population boom is due to the Kenya's anti-poaching laws. By 2020, The number of elephants poached in Kenya has dropped significantly from previous years./p>
Sri lanka: Elephants has deep respects for the people in Sri lanka. Elephant population in Sri Lanka is estimated to be 7,500 by 2021.
Zimbabwe: Zimbabwe government agency oversees around 5 million hectares of national parks and botanical gardens. Zimbabwe elephant population in 2021 is estimated to be 100,000, Its second biggest elephant population in Africa after its neighbor Botswana.
Botswana: Botswana is home to the world's largest elephant population in 581,730 sq. km, The Chobe National Park features four ecosystems with the most abundant wildlife concentration in all of Africa. Over half of Botswana is covered by the Kalahari Desert, But this semi-desert supports more wildlife than a true desert, The Kalahari Desert covers about 70 percent of this flat, landlocked country.
South Africa: There are about 17,000 elephants in Kruger Park, Elephant population in South Africa is estimated to be 24,000. The De Beers company which mines for diamonds in South Africa runs a private reserve, In July 2018 that it relocated 200 elephants to Mozambique because of overcrowding.
Elephant is the national animal of Thailand, In Thailand, white elephants are considered sacred and are a symbol of royal power. Thai people believe that white elephant is the majestic animal of the King. Thais for many generations used of elephants in various cultural traditions in the past, because of large animals with great intelligence and strength, some used for agriculture in the olden days as elephants can walk without damaging the small seedlings, does not make the soil tight. So elephants can transport things. Elephant population in Thailand is estimated to be around 3,783. For the past one-hundred years Thai elephants has been reduced from 100,000 to 4,000 wild elephants. For many centuries, elephant has played an important role in Thai society, human lives were connected with elephants in almost every aspect.
Nigeria: Nigeria has a few hundred surviving elephants, The population groups are in Yankari National Park, with smaller population proportions in the forests of southern Nigeria and the savannah of northern Nigeria.
DR Congo: Virunga National Park, a stretch of land on the eastern border of the DRC, is known for its rich diversity of habitats and rare wildlife. Elephant population in Congo is estimated to be around 7,000. It is believed to have around 40,000 elephants in the last decades, but due to poaching of ivory, population must be extinct.
Myanmar: Myanmar is covered in more than 160,000 sq miles of forest. Seventy years ago, about 10,000 elephants inhabited the region, Elephant population in Myanmar is is estimated to be 2,000.
China: Elephant population in China is estimated to be between 200 to 250.
Cameroon: Conservation of the elephant population within the Deng-Deng National Park and Nja Biosphere Reserve, The elephant population in Cameroon was estimated at 6,500 in 2021.
Gabon: Gabon is home to Africa's largest elephant population, yet between 2004 and 2014 their numbers declined by about 80% due to the poaching of 25,000 elephants for ivory. Elephant population in Gabon is estimated to be 10,000 to 15,000.
Zambia: According to Zambia's Department of National Parks and Wildlife, Elephant population in Zambia is estimated to be around 14,000 living in the wild areas.
Mozambique: According to the he National Conservation Areas Administration, Mozambique has an estimated population of 10,800 elephants, The population in the Mozambique has been stable, without poaching incident since from 2014.
Tanzania: Tanzania harbours one of Africa's significant elephant populations, more than 43,000 in 2014, to over 60,000 currently.
Malaysia: According to the Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Elephant population in Peninsular Malaysia is estimated to be between 1223 to 1677.
Indonesia: Subspecies of Asian Elephant are called Sumatran elephants in Indonesia. As of 2007, the population of Sumatran elephants is estimated to be 2,400 to 2,800 living in wild in 25 populations across the island. By 2022 the Elephant population in Indonesia is estimated to be between 1200 to 2400.
Vietnam: Elephants in Vietnam are at a critical juncture, the elephant population has experienced a fast decline over the past two to three decades. Fauna and Flora International estimates elephant population in Vietnam is estimated to be 85 elephants living in the wild regions of national park, compared with about 500 in the early 1980s and 1,500 to 2,000 in 1975. There are currently five groups of wild elephants, with the elephant population found in Yok Don National Park (in Dak Lak Province), an area of 100,000 hectares.
Laos: Forest covers up to 47% of the total land area, Elephant population in Laos is estimated to be 800. Laos used to call "Land of Million Elephants", to be known in the Kingdom of Lan Xang from 1354 to 1707. Laos had extensive forests and sparse human population, wild herds of elephants roamed all over the region. At that time, elephants were the main mode of transportation for the royal family and the principle tanks of war. Elephants continue to be considered a sacred animal in Laos, which Lao people believe will bring them prosperity. The Laos government and conservationists estimate there are only 800 elephants left in all of Laos, just half of them living in the wild.
© 2019-2022 populationU, Research papers on Population dynamics and Social affairs