Indonesia is a Southeast Asian country located in Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans. Country is made of seventeen thousand islands, including Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, and parts of Borneo and New Guinea. The name Indonesia derives from Greek words of Indos meaning Indian Islands. Indonesia population in 2023 is estimated to be 284.3 million, ranks fourth populous country in the world. It covers an area of 1,904,569 sq km (735,358 sq mi), ranks 14th largest by land in the world. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighboring countries include Singapore, Vietnam, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Indonesia is the world's most populous Muslim majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population. These two groups are the 41% of Javanese and 15% Sundanese. Both groups originate from the island of Java, Indonesia's most populous island, which contains almost sixty percent of the country's total population. It has 34 provinces, of which five have special status. The country's capital, Jakarta, is the second-most populous urban area in the world. Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support one of the world's highest levels of biodiversity. Indonesia's national motto unity in diversity. Its islands can be grouped into the Greater Sunda Islands of Sumatra, Java, the southern extent of Borneo, and Celebes, the Lesser Sunda Islands of Bali and Timor, the Moluccas between Celebes and the island of New Guinea and the western extent of New Guinea.
Indonesia Population Indicators
Fertility rate is 2.4 births per woman in 2017.
Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (the most widely spoken of which is Javanese)
Total area of Indonesia is 1.9 million square kilometers. Therefore, population density in Indonesia is around 141 people per square kilometer, 2020 Population Census show that Indonesia’s total population has reached 270.2 million, a 14% rise from the figure of 237.6 million recorded in 2010. Maluku and Papua Islands are Indonesia’s least populated areas, with just 3.17% of the population, or 8.6 million people. Men account for 136.66 million (50.58%) of the total population and women make up 133.54 million. Indonesia population in 2022 is estimated to be 279 million, and in 2021 is estimated to be 273 million.
|Province||Province(Indonesian)||2018 (Thousands)||2019 (Thousands)||2020 (Thousands)|
|North Sumatra||SUMATERA UTARA||14,476.0||14,639.4||14,798.4|
|West Sumatra||SUMATERA BARAT||5,411.8||5,479.5||5,545.7|
|South Sumatra||SUMATERA SELATAN||8,391.5||8,497.2||8,600.8|
|Bangka Belitung Islands||KEP. BANGKA BELITUNG||1,432.1||1,451.1||1,469.8|
|Riau Islands||KEP. RIAU||2,174.8||2,241.6||2,309.5|
|West Jawa||JAWA BARAT||48,475.5||49,023.2||49,565.2|
|Central Jawa||JAWA TENGAH||34,358.5||34,552.5||34,738.2|
|East Jawa||JAWA TIMUR||39,521.9||39,744.8||39,955.9|
|West Nusa Tenggara||NUSA TENGGARA BARAT||5,077.7||5,152.4||5,225.9|
|East Nusa Tenggara||NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR||5,360.3||5,437.2||5,513.4|
|West Kalimantan||KALIMANTAN BARAT||4,985.1||5,045.7||5,104.9|
|Central Kalimantan||KALIMANTAN TENGAH||2,612.6||2,649.8||2,686.3|
|South Kalimantan||KALIMANTAN SELATAN||4,162.4||4,216.3||4,268.6|
|East Kalimantan||KALIMANTAN TIMUR||3,573.8||3,619.7||3,664.7|
|North Kalimantan||KALIMANTAN UTARA||682.8||695.6||708.4|
|North Sulawesi||SULAWESI UTARA||2,474.4||2,494.1||2,512.9|
|Central Sulawesi||SULAWESI TENGAH||3,001.9||3,042.1||3,081.7|
|South Sulawesi||SULAWESI SELATAN||8,748.1||8,819.5||8,888.8|
|East Sulawesi||SULAWESI TENGGARA||2,623.6||2,663.7||2,703.5|
|West Sulawesi||SULAWESI BARAT||1,340.1||1,359.2||1,378.1|
|North Maluku||MALUKU UTARA||1,218.8||1,235.7||1,252.3|
|West Papua||PAPUA BARAT||941.4||963.6||986.0|
Indonesia is inhibited over 500,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population. Agricultural conditions are favourable in this region and rice was a long time cultivation since from past 5000 years. Buddhism was flourished between 7th to the 12th century AD, during these period Srivijaya empire become a hegemon in Southeast Asia. Srivijaya controlled much of the maritime trade in the Indian Ocean during 9th century, Srivijaya has build a huge maritime trade in the regions of Malaysia, Philippines, Cambodia. Sri Cudamani Warmadewa was the last emperor of Srivijaya ruled from 988 AD, In 990, the naval invasion of Javanese Medang King, Dharmawangsa was a Javanese Hindu-Buddhist kingdom during 8th to 9th century.
Attracted to the wealth of Srivijaya, Rajendra Chola, the Chola king from Tamil Nadu in South India, launched naval raids on ports of Srivijaya in 1025. Chola's navy sailed swiftly to Sumatra using monsoon winds, made a stealth attack and raided Srivijaya's 14 ports. The reason of Chola attacks to Srivijaya empire were unknown as Chola's has large empire in the Souther India, may be due to the obstacles created in Chola trade by Srivijaya trade or on commercial node to create space to rule. The Majapahit Empire, a Javanese Hindu kingdom between 1293 to 1527 was considered greatest and most powerful empires in Eastern Java, This period referred as Golden Age in Indonesian history. Majapahit was an empire of 98 tributaries, stretching from Sumatra to New Guinea. It is seen as the precedent for Indonesia's modern boundaries. Before the arrival of Islam, the predominant religions in Indonesia were Buddhism and Hinduism. Though historical documents are incomplete, the limited evidence suggests that the spread of Islam accelerated in the 15th century, as the military power of Melaka Sultanate in Malay Peninsular today Malaysia and other Islamic Sultanates dominated the region aided by episodes of Muslim coup such as in 1446. The spread of Islam is accelerated in eastern islands of Indonesia in 1605 initially started with trade, Traders and the royalty of major kingdoms were usually the first to convert to Islam. By the end of the 13th century, Islam had been established in North Sumatra and by the 14th in northeast Malaya, Brunei, the southern Philippines and among some courtiers of East Java, and the 15th in Malacca and other areas of the Malay Peninsula.
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