Vietnam is a country in Southeast Asia located at the eastern edge of the Indochinese Peninsula, borders China to the north, and Laos and Cambodia to the west, Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia through the South China Sea and Thailand through the Gulf of Thailand. Vietnam population in 2021 is estimated to be 98.5 million, covering area of 331,699 sq km., making it the world's sixteenth most populous country. Its capital is Hanoi, and the largest city is Ho Chi Minh City with a population of 8,636,899. The city of Ha Noi is a close second with 7,781,631 people, the other three cities with substantial populations are Hai Phong, Da Nang, and Can Tho. Vietnam also written as Viet Nam. According to gso, Population of Vietnam in 2020 is 97.58 million, with 50.2% of female population and 49.8% of male population. 36.8% of population live in urban areas whereas 63.2% live in rural areas. Life expectancy of Vietnam is 73.7. Sex ratio of Vietnam population is 112 males to 100 female. The Human Development Index rank in 2020 is 117. Vietnam shares borders with Laos (2,161 km), China (1,297 km), and Cambodia (1,158 km).
|Year||Population in Thousands|
Buddhist 7.9%, Catholic 6.6%, Hoa Hao 1.7%, Cao Dai 0.9%, Protestant 0.9%, Muslim 0.1%, none 81.8% (2009 est.)
Kinh (Viet) 85.7%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.8%, Muong 1.5%, Khmer 1.5%, Mong 1.2%, Nung 1.1%, Hoa 1%, other 4.3% (2009 est.)
Vietnamese (official), English (increasingly favored as a second language), some French, Chinese, and Khmer, mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
Vietnam is divided into 58 provinces and five municipalities. So far the country has conducted five population and housing censuses since the revolution in 1975, specifically in April of 1979, 1989, 1999, 2009 and 2019. The fifth Vietnam population and housing census in 2019 aimed to collect information about national indicators and some sustainable development indicators. Ho Chi Minh City 8.145 million, Da Nang 1.444 million, Hai Phong 1.219 million, Can Tho 1.175 million, Haiphong 1.075 million (2018).
|Provinces||Area sq km||Population (2019) in Thousands||Density (Person/km2)|
|Red River Delta||21,260.8||22,620.2||1,064.0|
|Northern midlands and mountain areas||95,221.9||12,569.3||132.0|
|Northern Central area and Central coastal area||95,875.8||20,220.4||211.0|
|Ba Ria - Vung Tau||1,981.0||1,152.2||582.0|
|Ho Chi Minh city||2,061.4||9,038.6||4,385.0|
|Mekong River Delta||40,816.4||17,282.5||423.0|
Vietnam has a history of tribes uniting to form strong dynasties from 5000 years. The Hong Bang was the first dynasty that many consider the start of the Vietnamese region, was ruled by the legendary Hung kings. Rice cultivation is introduced into the region around 2500 BCE. In 500 - The Vietnamese New Year, called Tet, is first celebrated. In 300 BCE - 600 CE, Buddhism reaches the area under the influence of Indian empires. According to columbia university, In 200 BCE, Kingdom of Nan Yue encompasses northern area of Vietnam along with what are today the two southern Chinese provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi. In 111 BCE, the Han Dynasty from China added Vietnam into their empire. Han Wudi conquers Nan Yue and divides it into provinces, northern area of Vietnam called "Chiao Chih". For almost 1000 years, Vietnam would remained a part of the Chinese empire, Until It was in 938 AD that Ngo Quyen defeated the Chinese and gained independence for Vietnam. Vietnam was then ruled by a succession of dynasties including the Ly, Tran, and the Le dynasty. Under the influence of Le dynasty the kingdom of Vietnam reached its peak, expanding to the south and conquering a portion of the Khmer Empire. In 57 BCE, End of the Hong Bang Dynasty and beginning of the Thuc Dynasty. In 118, Confucianism reaches Vietnam. In 40 CE, Trung sisters lead revolt against Chinese domination trying to expel the Chinese but fail. Their exploits and courage are legendary, Trung Nhac and Trung Nhi were daughters of a local Lac lord, they are believed to have committed suicide rather than submit to the Chinese. Hinduism, adopted through conflicts and conquest of territory from neighbouring Funan in the 4th century AD, shaped the art and culture of the Champa kingdom for centuries, as testified by the many Cham Hindu statues and red brick temples that dotted the landscape in Cham lands.
The Chinese rule in Vietnam which ended in 939 CE. Ngo Quyen defeats a Chinese force and ends Chinese political domination. Indian influence is most evident among the Cham and Khmer minorities. The Cham formed the majority population in the Indianised kingdom of Champa in what is now central Vietnam from the 2nd to the late 15th century CE. Between 1010 - 1225, Ly dynasty termed as 1st Golden Age of Vietnam. Ly dynasty of the Viets established in area called Dai Viet, capital Thang-long (Emergent Dragon), today "Hanoi". During these period (1000 - 1450) Great Buddhist epoch, First university established, Water puppets emerge as dramatic form, Temple of Literature founded (1070), Chu Nom, a set of characters used to write Vietnamese, developed by the Vietnamese. In 1225 - 1400, Tran dynasty of Chinese descent replaces the Ly, scholars of classical Chinese learning (Confucianism) and Buddhism of Chinese style brought to capital of Thang-long. Tran princess marries Champa ruler in Hue. In 1407 - 1427 Ming dynasty occupation of Dai Viet.
In 1428 - 1527, Le dynasty, it is termed as 2nd Golden Age in Dai Viet. Le Loi and Nguyen Trai lead revolt against the Ming (1418 - 28), Independent dynasty established, Confucian-style state with examinations, attack on Champa, Le Thanh-tong, king who implements changes, Viets destroy kingdom of Champa. Small numbers of Cham remain in the south-central coastal plain and in the Mekong delta near the Cambodian border. The Khmer (Cambodians) are scattered throughout the Mekong delta. 1528 - 1771, Three families vie for power, Le family power declines, Mac and Trinh families compete in north while Nguyen family competes from center and south, Trinh and Nguyen claim to restore the Le. During 1802, Nguyen dynasty unites entire country, a southern prince, who fought and defeated the Tay Son to become the Gia long Emperor, moved the capital to Hue in the center of the country, The second Nguyen ruler adopts a Chinese bureaucratic model, with scholar officials chosen by examinations in the Confucian classics.In 1858 the French came to Vietnam, during 1862, French control Vietnam, dividing it into three countries. In 1893 the French incorporated Vietnam into French Indochina.
In 1945, Ho Chi Minh declares Vietnam independent and establishes government in the north, French return after Japanese defeat, United States and Britain support the French. France continued to rule until it was defeated by communist forces led by Ho Chi Minh in 1954. The country became divided into Communist North Vietnam and the anti-Communist South. The Vietnam War raged for years between the two countries with the US supporting the South and communist countries supporting the north. By 1975, North Vietnam takes control of South Vietnam and establishes a unified country, Name of Saigon changed to "Ho Chi Minh City", after Ho, who died before country united. The North eventually won uniting the country under communist rule.
|Year||Population in Millions|
|Red River Delta||2.06||2.04||2.23||2.35|
|Northern midlands and mountain areas||2.33||2.22||2.69||2.43|
|Northern Central area and Central coastal area||2.37||2.21||2.34||2.32|
|Ba Ria - Vung Tau||2.06||1.88||1.56||1.87|
|Ho Chi Minh city||1.52||1.45||1.45||1.39|
|Mekong River Delta||2.00||1.80||1.76||1.80|
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