Scotland lies in the north of the UK and covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, borders England to the southeast, Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, the North Sea to the northeast and the Irish Sea to the south. According to ons, Scotland population in 2021 is estimated to be 5.5 million, covers area of 77,933 sq.km. (30,090 sq mi). Scotland is the second largest country in the United Kingdom, The country contains more than 790 islands, Scotland is divided into 32 administrative subdivisions or local authorities, known as council areas. Glasgow City is the largest council area in terms of population, The name Scotland derives from the Latin Scotia, land of the Scots, The country has two major economic clusters of Edinburgh and Aberdeen, Edinburgh, the United Kingdom's second-largest financial centre and Aberdeen is a major hub for the oil and gas industry. A growing games and film industry has developed around Edinburgh, Glasgow and Dundee. Other growing sectors include sustainable energy, engineering and technology, particularly in life sciences and health. In 2017 the Netherlands was the largest export destination for Scottish goods and services.
Major cities of Scotland are Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, According to 2017 stats, The gross value added on exports and imports is £138,231 million (£25,485 per head of population), Total imports value of £24,202 million (5.2% of total UK imports), main partners are Norway, China, United States, and main products are machinery & transport equipment, fossil fuels, manufactures. Total exports value is £28,839 million (8.7% of overall UK exports), main partners are Netherlands, United States, Germany and main products are fossil fuels, machinery & transport equipment, alcoholic beverages and tobacco.
|Total change mid-2018 to mid-2019||361,257||25,200|
|% change to mid-2019||0.54%||0.46%|
|Average annual % change since 2015||0.67%||0.43%|
|Natural change (mid-2019, rate per 1,000 population)||1.93||-1.02|
|International migration (mid-2019, rate per 1,000 population)||3.47||3.71|
|Internal migration and other changes (mid-2019, rate per 1,000 population)||0.04||1.94|
Regarding Scotland Work and employment, In 2011, 2.5 million people aged between 16 and 74 were employed, 63% of the 4 million people aged 16 to 74 in Scotland. Over half of those people worked more than 38 hours per week in their main job. 39% worked between 38 and 48 hours a week, and 12% worked 48 hours a week or more. Its common for women to work part-time than men. 44% of women aged 16 to 74 worked part-time, compared to 13% of men. 15% of Scotland's workforce, or 377,000 people, worked in health and social work and retail. 8.4% are in education sector, Manufacturing and constructing each employed about another 8% of working people in Scotland.
Scotland Census recorded a rise in people with no religion between 2001 and 2011, while Church of Scotland numbers dropped. 37% of people said they had no religion, increase from 28% who said they had no religion in 2001, 39% of males and 34% of females said they had no religion. In 2011, 7% of people did not state their religion. Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus and Sikhs all increased in number from 2001. 1.4% of people said they were following Muslim religion, increase of 0.6 percentage points since 2001. Buddhists, Hindus and Sikhs made up 0.7% of the population, increased between 2001 and 2011. Jewish people declined slightly to just under 6,000. Total Scotland population of 941,116 people with no religion, 1,717,871 of Church of Scotland, 841,053 of Roman Catholic, 291,275 of Other Christian, 76,737 of Muslim, 16,379 of Hindu, 12,795 of Buddhist, 9,055 of Sikh, 5,997 of Jewish and 15,196 follows other religions.
In terms of ethnicity, According to scotlandscensus, Scotland's population was 96.0% white, a decrease of 2.0% from 2001, 91.8% of people identified as White Scottish or White British, 4.2% of people identified as Polish, Irish, Gypsy/Traveller or Other Whites, the population in Asian, African, Caribbean or Black, Mixed or Other ethnic groups doubled to 4.0%.
White population in Scotland
In 2011, The white population in Scotland is the largest ethnic group. 83.9% are white population and identified as Scottish Whites, while another 7.9% identified as being British White. 221,000 people identified part of a white minority ethnic group. The most common white minority ethnic groups are, 61,000 people who identified as Polish White, 54,000 people who identified as Irish White, 29,000 people who identified as Other Western EuropeanWhite, 4,000 people in Scotland identified as Gypsy/Traveller White.
Asian population in Scotland
The Asian population in Scotland nearly doubled in size between 2001 and 2011, rising by 69,000. 2.7% of Scotland's population identified as Asian, Asian Scottish or Asian British. This was about 141,000 people, The most common asian minority ethnic groups are, 50,000 people are Pakistani, 34,000 people are Chinese, 33,000 people are Indian, 4,000 people are Bangladeshi, 21,000 people who identified as Other Asians.
Black population in Scotland
African Caribbean or Black groups made up just over 1% of Scotland's population. Black population in Scotland had grown by 28,000 people since 2001. More than 36,000 people identified as African, Caribbean or Black, split between, about 30,000 people who identified as African, and under 7,000 people who identified as Caribbean or Black.
DiversityScotland's cities had the highest proportions of ethnic minorities.
In Edinburgh, 17.9% of the population identified as an ethnic minority. 5.1% are Other white, 2.7% are Polish white, 1.8% are Irish white, 1.7% are Chinese, 1.4% are Indian, 1.2% are Pakistani.
In Glasgow, 17.3% of the population identified as an ethnic minority. 3.8% are Pakistani, 2.4% are Other white, 2.1% are African, 1.9% are Irish white, 1.8% are Chinese, 1.5% are Indian, and 1.4% are polish white.
In Aberdeen, 17.1% of the population identified as an ethnic minority. 4.7% are as other white: Other3.2% are Polish white, 2.2% are African, 1.5% are Indian, 1.0% are as other asian.
In Dundee, 10.6% of the population identified as an ethnic minority, 2.3% are other white, 1.4% are Pakistani and 1.4% are polish white.
4.9 million people in Scotland were born in the UK, 93% of the population in 2011, down from 96% in 2001. 83% of Scotland’s population was born in Scotland. 369,000 people in Scotland were born outside of the UK, nearly double the number in 2001, when 192,000 people in Scotland were born outside the UK. 55% of people born outside the UK had arrived in the UK between 2004 and March 2011. 89% of people born outside the UK had arrived in the country when they were younger than 35 years old.
The City of Edinburgh was Scotland's most qualified council area. Education levels of Scotland population are, 26% of people aged 16 and over had a university degree or professional qualification a totaling to 1.1 million people. 1.2 million people had no qualifications, includes people aged 16 and over who might still be studying. Education across Edinburgh residents aged 16 and over are 41% had a university degree, professional qualification, 17% had no qualifications, 17% of people in West Dunbartonshire had university or professional qualifications. This was the lowest in Scotland. East Ayrshire had the highest proportion of population with no qualifications, at 34%.
Out of all ethnic groups, The African ethnic group was more qualified than other ethnic groups. 55% of people aged 16 and over in the African ethnic group had a university or professional qualification. The White Scottish ethnic category had the lowest proportion of adults with 29% of people reported no qualifications. Recent arrivals to the UK who had recently arrived in the UK were generally more qualified, 10% of people aged 16 and over who arrived in the UK between 2001 and 2011 had no qualifications compared to 28% of people born in the UK who had no qualifications.
English was by far the most widely spoken language in Scotland. 93% of people aged 3 and over said they spoke only English at home. According to the scotlandscensus, 99% of people in Scotland aged 3 and over spoke English. 5.1 million people said they could speak English very well. Speaking, reading and writing English, 94% of people in Scotland aged 3 and over said they could speak, read and write. 75% of people born in EU accession countries said they could speak, read or write. 89% of people born in the Middle East and Asia could speak, read and write English.
Scots are more than 1.5 million people said they could speak Scots, 267,000 people said they could understand Scots but not read, write or speak the language. 1% of adults said they spoke Scots at home. The Shetland Islands, Aberdeenshire, Moray and Orkney Islands had the highest proportions of Scots speakers at home.
Gaelic are over 57,000 people said they could speak Gaelic, fall from 59,000 in the 2001 census. 23,000 people said they could understand Gaelic, but not read, write, or speak it. Council areas with the most Gaelic speakers were, Eilean Siar (Western Isles), where 52% of the population could speak Gaelic, Highland, where 5% could speak Gaelic Argyll and Bute, where 4% could speak Gaelic, These were also the areas were people most commonly spoke Gaelic at home. Overall, 0.5% of adults in Scotland said they spoke Gaelic at home, Gaelic speakers decreased between 2001 and 2011 for all age groups except in people under 20, which had an increase of 0.1 of a percentage point.
British Sign Language are 13,000 people used British Sign Language at home, about 0.2% of the total population. Polish language was the most commonly spoken language in Scotland after English, Scots and Gaelic, of about 54,000 people, 1% of Scotland's population spoke Polish at home.
12% of people in Aberdeen, Edinburgh and Glasgow said they spoke other languages around the home, most commonly spoken languages at home other than English and Scots are, Polish (54,186 people), Urdu (23,394 people), Punjabi languages (23,150 people), Chinese languages (16,830 people) and French (14,623 people).