Australia is lying between the Pacific and Indian oceans in the Southern Hemisphere. Australias population in 2021 is expected to be 25.8 million, Its fifty-third populous country in the world. It is the largest country in Oceania with an area 7,692,024 sq km (2,969,907 sq mi) and the sixth-largest country by total area in the world. 61.4% of annual growth was due to natural increase, and 38.6% was due to net overseas migration. Life expectancy increased by 25 years since the early 1900s. Australia's capital is Canberra, and most populous and economic activity areas are Sydney and Melbourne. Australia is a relatively prosperous independent country, Historically is the part of the British Empire and now a member of the Commonwealth. Lying on the Indo-Australian Plate, Australia with its larger size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with tropical rainforests in the north-east, mountain ranges in the south-east, south-west and east, and desert in the centre. Australia is highly urbanised, with 67% of the population living in the urban city areas, Metropolitan areas with more than one million inhabitants are Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide. The population increased from 4 million in 1901 to 25.6 million in 2020. Australians living in urban areas increased from 60% in 1911 to 90%. In 1901, just over one in three Australians (1.3 million) lived in capital cities. Fertility fell from 3.1 births per woman in 1921 to 1.8 in 2019. Job sector for women and social transformations during the period of 1960 and 1970, including increase of female participation in the labour force led to a rapid decline in the average number of babies per Australian woman. After World War II, People migrated to Australia from European countries particularly from Italy, Greece and the former Yugoslavia. dismantling of the White Australia policy and broadening of Australia's immigration policies in 1973, new migrants have arrived from all parts of the world notably from east and south Asia, led to increasing the diversity of Australia's population.
Australia Population Indicators
Birth rate is 12.6 births/1000 people in 2019. Infant Mortality is 3.6/1000 live births in 2019. Fertility rate is 1.8 births per woman in 2017. Death rate is 5.3 deaths/1000 people in 2019. Life expectancy for male is 81, and for female is 85.
In 2019, those born in England (986,000 people) continued to be the largest group of overseas-born residents, accounting for 3.9% of Australia's total population. This year, the growing overseas-born residents from Sri Lanka has moved into 10th position, replacing Scotland.
Australia's population by country of birth - 2019. The proportion of Australians born overseas was just under 29%. However, this varies across the nation. At the state and territory level, the proportion of the population born overseas are Western Australia had the highest proportion at 35%, Tasmania had the lowest at 13%, New South Wales at 30%, Victoria at 31%, Queensland at 24%, South Australia at 24%, The Northern Territory at 23%, The Australian Capital Territory at 28%.
|Country of birth||2019 Population (x 1000)|
According to migration data, Overseas migration to and from Australia in 2019, resulted in a net increase to Australia's population of 239,600 people. There were 537,800 overseas migrant arrivals, a slight increase reversing the decline seen in 2018. There were 298,200 overseas migrant departures which is the highest number on record. Temporary visa holders were the majority of overseas migrant arrivals (64.3%) and overseas migrant departures (52.8%).
Net overseas migration has remained above 180,000 people since 2006. After a 9.5% decrease in 2017-18 migrant numbers remained relatively steady in 2018-19.
|Cities||Population, June 2019|
|Total capital cities||17,160,368|
|States & Territories||2020 population(x 1000)|
|New South Wales||8,166.4|
|Australian Capital Territory||431.2|
Today the population of Australia consists of more than 270 ethnic groups. Australia lately explored by Europeans in 1788. Before to European explorers, the first Aboriginal explorers had arrived from Asia, and is expected by around 20,000 years ago that they they had moved to the mainland of Tasmania. When Captain Arthur Phillip of the British Royal Navy landed with the First Fleet at Botany Bay in 1788, there may have been a expected of around 250,000 and 500,000 Aboriginals presence in these region. They are largely nomadic hunters and gatherers. The expansion of British control over other areas of the continent began in the early 19th century, initially confined to coastal regions. By 1850, Europeans still had not entered large areas of the inland. Explorers remained ambitious to discover new lands for agriculture. The momentum of finding gold rushes beginning in the early 1850 led to an influx of new migrants from China, North America and Europe.
The Aboriginal people failed to extinguish their culture due to the persecution and political indifference shown toward them. Aboriginal community's "Land Rights" became a cry of political movement. The number of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, though still only were a small fraction of the total population, their population is increased dramatically in the last decades of the 21th century, increasing from 115,000 in 1971 to some 550,000 in the 2011 census.
Since from start of 19th century the Chinese were attracted for the cheap labour jobs in the goldfields, In 1850, tens of thousands of Chinese people arrived to provide a key manpower source. After the gold rushes, many Chinese miners returned home to their families in China, but others stayed back.
Due to the popular gold rush, Italian migrants moved to Australia in 1850 for mining jobs, The first Italian community was established in Victoria, After the gold ran out in the region, many Italians remained in Australia and established agricultural communities in other parts of the country. Like the Chinese, many Italian migrants came from rural backgrounds, which helped them to excel in farming.
Overseas migration is the main driver of Australia population growth, accounting for just over 55% of Australia’s population increase since 2001. From 2001 to 2016, Australia's population increased by just over 25% to reach 25 million in 2019.
© 2019-2020 populationU, Research papers on Population dynamics and Social affairs