India, being a vast fertile country, situated in the souther-part of Asia. India population is 1.35 billion estimated as on 2019. Its second largest in the world after China. Its located in South Asia bordering with Bay of Bengal to the east, Arabian Sea in the west and Indian Ocean in the south. India is 7th largest by land and occupies 2.41% of the world's land area but supports over 18% of the world's population. 68% of population lives in villages and 32% lives in cities and towns. Currently population growth rate is 1.13% as on 2017 and expected to rise more than 1.5 billion people by 2030, and is set to reach 1.7 billion by 2050. India has more than 65% of its population below the age of 35 compared to 38 in China Population and 49 in Japan.
India Population Indicators
Birth rate is 19 births/1000 people in 2016
Infant Mortality is 40/1000 live births in 2017
Fertility rate is 2.3 births per woman in 2017
Death rate is 7.1 deaths/1000 people in 2016
Population above 60 years is 7.7% in 2018
|Population growth Today
|Population growth This year
| Births This year
| Deaths Today
| Deaths This year
Despite being fastest growing in the world, India's Poverty rate is 19.8% in 2011 roughly 240 million according to Pew global organisation. The poverty rate was more than 70% when British left India in 1947. India is trying to come out from British colonial impact in their late 19th to 20 century(1857-1947) from famines, slavery, diseases and high taxation. India's Low income group is 76.9%(960 million) as per world bank threshold of 995 dollars per year, from 2001 to 2011 total of 15.6% which is 200 million is moved from poverty to low income group due to various welfare schemes.
|Level||as on 2011||point change|
2001 to 2011
|Worldbank Threshold 2019|
|Middle income||2.6%||1.2%||$995 - $3,895|
|Upper-middle income||0.3%||2%||$3,896 - $12,055|
|High income||0.1%||0.1%||> $12,055|
As per 2011 Census, the overall literacy rate of India is 73%, where as at the time of India's Independence the country's literacy is as low to 14%, the literacy rate is improved drastically over the period of 7 decades, states like Keral and Mizoram is 94% and 91.3%. are above national average where as the state like Bihar has 61.8 is very lower than national average. There is a strong need to improve the overall literacy rate which will impact on country's population growth rate and economic growth rate.
Religion is an important cultural feature of a population, all religions have left an imprint on the customs, art, literature, food habits, politics and culture of mankind. Followers of almost all the important religions with their various denominations live there. There are several religions in India, they are Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism and Zoroastrianism. Hinduism is an ancient religion often regarded as the oldest religion in the world with roots tracing back to prehistoric times, over 10,000 years. The population of India by religion wise are 80% of the population practices Hinduism(1 billion), 14% with Islam(180 million), 2.3% with Christianity, 1.7% Sikhism(21 million), 0.7% Buddhism(12 million) and 0.4% with Jainism(4.45 million).
India is a union of 28 states and 9 union territories with the recent inclusion of Jammu-Kashmir and Ladakh by Government of India on 5th August 2019. The five states of Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh account for almost half of the total Indian population. Uttar Pradesh is located in the north-central region of the Indian continent, has over 200 million inhabitants followed by Maharashtra with 112 Million and Bihar with 105 Million. The Smallest state is Sikkim(0.6 Million). Below is the State wise population of India and 7 union territories with estimated figures of the year 2019:
|State||Population(2018)||Population(2011)||Total Fertility Rate||Fertility Rate Year|
|Union Territory||Population(2018)||Population(2011)||Total Fertility Rate||Fertility Rate Year|
|Jammu and Kashmir||14,046,258||12,541,302||1.7||2016|
|Daman and Diu||272,437||243,247||1.9||2013|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli||384,954||343,709||2.7||2013|
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||426,251||380,581||0.7||2013|
By 1600 the population in India is expected to be around 115 million and by 1700 the population to be around 150 million and 170 million by 1800. The East India Company carried out quantitative exercises in various places prior to 1857. The first registered population census in India was conducted by British periodically from 1865, then in 1881 onward to the year 1947. Since from independence in 1947, a census has been conducted every 10 years, and the first census by Ministry of Home Affairs happened in 1951. It is recorded in 1951 census that the literacy rate is just 18% and life expectancy is only 32 years average. Based on the census on 1951 to 1941 the total displaced persons around 7 millions Muslims went to east and west Pakistan territory and around 7 million Hindus and Sikhs moved to Indian territory. At this census Hindus were 84%, 9.8% are Muslims remained in India, together with all religions India has become a powerful secular country and is spearheading the rise in global economy. The latest census was conducted in 2011 by the Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, the next census is scheduled in 2021 and will be 15th in series and 8th census since Independence.
|Years||Children per woman||Births per 1000|
|2020 - 2025||2.19||17.5|
|2025 - 2030||2.1||16.3|
|2030 - 2035||2.02||15.1|
|2035 - 2040||1.95||14.0|
|2040 - 2045||1.9||13.1|
|2045 - 2050||1.86||12.5|
India was ranked 133rd position among the list of 156 countries which were included in the World Happiness Index. The index is based on national happiness based on respondent ratings of their own lives and factors like inequality, life expectancy, Social freedom and GDP Per Capitia. Life expectancy is 67.3 and stands at 101 rank, lower than the world average of 74 years. Well being is 4.6/10 points with 104 as rank and inequality stands at 103 out of 156. The World Happiness Report is an annual publication of the United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network. The world’s largest democracy’s rank fell to 133rd position in 2018 from 122nd in 2017.
According to WPS 2017-2018 report, the rank is 131 out of 153 countries performing at the rate of average to worst with 0.57 index,the best is 0.87, the global average 0.68 and the worst is 0.38. The Mean years of schooling for women is 5.39 years, the best rating is for United States, Switzerland, Latvia, Germany and Canada with 13 to 14 years. Financial inclusion is 42.64% best is Norway, Finland and Denmark with100% and average is 48%. The cellphone usage is 71%, the countries with 100% are United Arab Emirates, Libya and Finland. Representation in Parliament is 11.56%, Rwanda, Iceland and Cuba are with 47-50%. Legal discrimination index for Women population of India is 24. United Kingdom, Spain, Mexico, Bosia & Malta has the best legal discriminate laws and index is 8, Global average is 23 and worst is 54. Son bias is preference for boys reflects serious discrimination against girls and women, India score is 1.109, Best score is 1.02, Global average is 1.08 and worst score is 1.16(China).
5. India as Described by Megasthenes
6. Total fertility by education levels